Alterations in the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

The circulatory and respiratory systems

This week we will continue our discussion of the circulatory and respiratory systems. You will have another case study to discuss in a two-page paper based on the below-listed case scenario.

Case Scenario:

11-year-old boy complains of wheezing and difficulty “getting enough air.” Notices it more when he is playing baseball and symptoms improve when exercise activity stops. He says that the symptoms are getting worse, and the symptoms are even occurring at rest. Mother says the child is allergic to cat dander and his next-door neighbor in their apartment building recently began sheltering cats for the local humane society. Auscultation demonstrates wheezes on forced expiration throughout all lung fields.

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following:

1. The cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes that result in the patient presenting these symptoms.

2. Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.

3. How these processes interact to affect the patient.




Alterations in the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems




Student’s Name







Alterations in the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

“Basketball is probably one of the best workouts you can have, as it is cardiovascular and plyometric.” (Donovan Bailey). Cardiovascular diseases and health conditions evince high hospital repatriation after intensive and holistic healthcare services provisions. Interventions and advancements in treating cardiovascular diseases resulted in better patient outcomes and healthcare efficiencies worldwide. Inadequate clinical management of cardiovascular diseases is the main challenge facing the management of cardiovascular diseases despite professional advancement in medical fields (Powell-Wiley et al., 2021). The number of patients losing lives to cardiovascular diseases has increased in the last three decades where researchers indicate that it is difficult for healthcare providers to adequately and appropriately manage cardiovascular diseases as the pathophysiology processes that result in different symptoms of the diseases are not well-recognized (Drew et al., 2020). It is critical to understand the pathophysiologic process of cardiovascular diseases with the same symptoms and provide patients with a fulfilling and satisfying diagnosis and treatment. This paper aims to explore a case study on cardiovascular diseases explaining the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes resulting in the patient’s symptoms, ethnic variables impacting physiological functioning, and lastly, look at how the processes interact to affect the patient.

The Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiologic Processes Resulting in the Patient’s Symptoms

The patient delineated symptoms of cardiopulmonary and cardiovascular pathophysiologic processes from the case study. Most geriatric patients have lunacy, chronic pulmonary diseases, depression and anxiety disorders (Williams & Carel, 2018). The patient in the case study could suffer such conditions, as the symptoms the patient reported were similar to those of cardiopulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. From the symptoms recorded in the case study, it is clear that the patient needed an immediate suggestion for cardiopulmonary pathophysiological processes. From the case study, the patient suffered from shortness of breath which most likely was caused by interactions between oxygen carriers, the respiratory system, neural response, and cardiovascular systems. This condition occurs when a patient’s breath misses respiratory ventilation, especially pulmonary ventilation (Ai et al., 2019). An imbalance between the chest wall structures, receptors, lings and central respiratory motor activities brings about shortness of breath. It is possible that the patient experienced pleural pains in the chest region due to inflammation. There are no clinical causes for any symptoms of palpitation, as it occurs due to abnormal heart movements in the chest.

Ethnic Variables Impacting Physiological Functioning

Various ethnic variables got an impact on the pathophysiological functioning of the human body, Some of the ethnic variables impacting the patient’s pathophysiological functioning include peroxisome proliferator activated-receptors (Fougerat et al., 2020). These activated peroxisome proliferator receptors function with a thiazolidinedione, causing blockage to the channel activities lowering blood pressures, promoting vasodilator secretion, and preventing the secretion of endothelin peptides. The peroxisome proliferator activated-receptor is more activated in European ethnic groups compared to African ethnic groups, Black adult experiences higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and obesity and are more likely to die of cardiovascular diseases than white adults. Healthcare providers need to understand the ethnic variables impacting their patients’ physiological functioning to facilitate improved patient outcomes.

Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Processes Interacting to Affect the Patient

Cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary processes are essential processes that can significantly affect a patient. Cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary processes in African ethnic groups cause congestive heart failure, inflammations, and shortness of breath (Bauersachs et al., 2019). This process may take a long time before deactivation as the blood pressure takes quite a long time before stabilization. In nature, the cardiovascular pathophysiological processes lower blood pressure promoting the secretion of vasodilators, which affects the functionality of the cardiovascular organs. In addition, the interaction between the genes and pleura membranes may stimulate pleuritic tissues leading to chest pains. The circulatory and respiratory systems operate together to circulate blood and oxygen throughout the body where air moves in and out of the lungs through the trachea and the bronchioles while the blood moves in and out of the lungs with the help of the pulmonary arteries and veins connected to the heart, it is vital to understand the interaction between the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary processes.


In conclusion, the case study indicated the symptoms of cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary physiological processes. Despite the patient being aged and could be suffering from geriatric disorders, the patient indicated exceptional features of conditions resulting from cardiovascular pathophysiological processes. Adequate literature indicates that cardiovascular diseases have more excellent effects and can cause significant loss of life. Medical interventions and professional advancements are yet to provide a permanent remedy for the management of cardiovascular pathophysiological processes. Finally, there are some ethnic and racial variables impacting the pathophysiological of the body.

















Ai, Z., Hashimoto, K., & Melikov, A. K. (2019). Influence of pulmonary ventilation rate and breathing cycle period on the risk of cross‐infection. Indoor Air, 29(6), 993-1004.

Bauersachs, J., König, T., van der Meer, P., Petrie, M. C., Hilfiker‐Kleiner, D., Mbakwem, A., … & Sliwa, K. (2019). Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of peripartum cardiomyopathy: a position statement from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology Study Group on peripartum cardiomyopathy. European journal of heart failure21(7), 827-843.

Drew, R. C., Charkoudian, N., & Park, J. (2020). Neural control of cardiovascular function in black adults: implications for racial differences in autonomic regulation. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology318(2), R234-R244.

Fougerat, A., Montagner, A., Loiseau, N., Guillou, H., & Wahli, W. (2020). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and their novel ligands as candidates for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Cells9(7), 1638.

Powell-Wiley, T. M., Poirier, P., Burke, L. E., Després, J. P., Gordon-Larsen, P., Lavie, C. J., … & American Heart Association Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Epidemiology and Prevention; and Stroke Council. (2021). Obesity and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation143(21), e984-e1010.

Williams, T., & Carel, H. (2018). Breathlessness: From bodily symptom to existential experience. Existential medicine.

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