Discussion on Cardiovascular Disorders

The pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders

Veins and arteries are vital elements of the cardiovascular system. They carry the blood supply through the body and are essential for proper function. Sometimes veins and arteries malfunction, resulting in cardiovascular disorders. Malfunctions of arteries and veins are similar to malfunctions of a water hose. Consider the structure and function of a hose. A tap releases water, which then travels through the hose and comes out the other end. If the hose has been dormant for several months, dirt and rusty particles might build up inside, resulting in a restricted flow of water. Similarly, buildup of plaque inside the coronary arteries restricts blood flow and leads to disorders such as coronary heart disease. This disease is one of the most common cardiovascular disorders, and according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (2011), is the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. In this Discussion, you examine the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders such as coronary heart disease.

To Prepare

· Review this week’s media presentation on alterations of cardiovascular functions, as well as Chapter 24 in the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders.

· Select one patient factor: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Consider how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders.

· Select one of the following alterations of cardiovascular disorders: peripheral arterial disease, myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or dysrhythmia. Think about how hypertension or dyslipidemia can lead to the alteration you selected.

  1. Post a description of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders, including how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology.
  2. Then, explain how hypertension or dyslipidemia can lead to the alteration you selected for patients.





Discussion on Cardiovascular Disorders




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Discussion on Cardiovascular Disorders

The Pathophysiology of Cardiovascular Disorders

“People take ownership of sickness and disease by saying things like my high blood pressure, my diabetes, my heart disease, my depression, MY! MY! MY! Do not own it because it does not belong to you!” (Stella Payton). Cardiovascular disorder is a general term describing disorders of the heart or blood vessels, and they affect the heart and the blood vessels leading to a range of health problems, and they lead to high death rates globally, taking estimated 17.9 million lives each year (Malinowski et al., 2019), and people over the age of 45 years are the most affected by cardiovascular diseases. Coexisting two or more risk factors increases the likelihood of the disease’s occurrence. The treatment of cardiovascular diseases involves patient training in the context of the importance of lifestyle changes and taking pharmacotherapy and invasive therapy into account. This essay will explain the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders, the impact of genetics on the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders, and how hypertension leads to Congestive Heart Failure.

The Physiopathology of Cardiovascular Disorders

Cardiovascular diseases are disorders of the heart and blood vessels, and they are a set of heterogeneous diseases whose underlying cause of the development is often atherosclerosis. The pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases depends on the particular condition involving damaging blood vessels. Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular-related death worldwide, and it is the thickening and hardening of the arterial wall that accompanies aging, which is related to adverse impact on the cardiovascular system and several other diseases (Frąk et al., 2022). Coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis is a common heart condition observed by the narrowing or blockage of significant blood vessels-coronary arteries, and it is caused by the formation of plague within the intima of the vessel wall where the plague is termed as fatty material that grows inside intima along with a serious inflammation where the inflammation is chronic. Heart failure is also a cardiovascular disease occurring when the heart cannot pump to other body parts.

Genetics in Cardiovascular Diseases

Genetics can influence the risk of heart disease and a family history of cardiovascular disease alters the future risk of cardiovascular disorders depending on the amount and age of affected first-degree relatives, where numerous cardiac disorders can be inherited, including arrhythmias, congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and high blood cholesterol. Cardiovascular diseases causing heart attack, stroke, and heart failure can be found in families (Hajar, 2020). A genetic variation in a single gene affects the likelihood of developing heart disease, and genetic variation is spread from parents to children in the DNA of the ovary and sperm. The genetic code from the parents is copied into every cell of a child’s body during development. For identical twins, the hazard ratio of death from cardiovascular diseases increased by 3.8-15 times if an identical young one died due to cardiovascular before the age of 75, and the risk was three times higher for identical compared to no identical twins. It is essential to comprehend the genetic basis of cardiovascular diseases as it can describe risk assessment, prevention, and strategies for the treatment of the diseases.

Hypertension Causing Congestive Heart Failure

Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and death as it affects a substantial proportion worldwide remaining underdiagnosed and undertreated. Long-standing hypertension leads to left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction, causing an increase in myocardial rigidity, rendering the myocardium les compliant to changes in the preload, afterload, and sympathetic tone. Sufficient blood pressure control must be achieved in patients with hypertension preventing progression to overt heart failure (Oh et al., 2020). Blood pressure control is essential in patients with established heart failure, particularly among those with preserved ejection fractions. However, aggressive blood pressure lowering can cause adverse outcomes, as a reverse J-curve association exists between the blood pressure and the outcomes of a patient with heart failure. Little sapid evidence exists regarding the ideal blood pressure target for patients with heart failure, but a value near 130/80 mmHg appears to be adequate according to the current guidelines.


Cardiovascular disorders are a combination of diseases affecting the heart and the blood vessels, and the pathophysiology of the diseases includes numerous ways causing the development of ambiances, like atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Genetics can critically impact the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, and its factors can maximize the risk of an individual developing such ambiance. High blood pressure is a common risk factor for congestive heart failure, and when it develops, it can contribute to changes in blood vessel function and the formation of fatty materials that can hold lipids, and it is vital to manage such conditions as it minimizes the risk of cardiovascular disorders, improving overall health outcomes.





Frąk, W., Wojtasińska, A., Lisińska, W., Młynarska, E., Franczyk, B., & Rysz, J. (2022). Pathophysiology of Cardiovascular Diseases: New Insights into Molecular Mechanisms of Atherosclerosis, Arterial Hypertension, and Coronary Artery Disease. Biomedicines, 10(8), 1938. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10081938

Hajar, R. (2020). Genetics in Cardiovascular Disease. Heart Views: The Official Journal of the Gulf Heart Association, 21(1), 55-56. https://doi.org/10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_140_19

Malinowski, B., Zalewska, K., Węsierska, A., Sokołowska, M. M., Socha, M., Liczner, G., … & Wiciński, M. (2019). Intermittent fasting in cardiovascular disorders—an overview. Nutrients11(3), 673. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030673

Oh, G. C., & Cho, H. J. (2020). Blood pressure and heart failure. Clinical hypertension26, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40885-019-0132-x

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