Concept And Theories Of Nursing

The Parse’s theory of Human Becoming

The hospice nurse sat with Ann’s husband, Ben. Ann was resting quietly as the increased dosage of IV pain medication gradually reached its therapeutic level. Ben turned his head and slowly turned, looking out the room’s only window. As he glanced up, a small flicker of light caught his breath. It was a shooting star. A tear fell from the corner of his eye and he turned to Ann. The nurse sensed that something significant to Ann and Ben was unfolding. Shuffling to Ann’s bedside, he took her small fragile hand in his. These hands had rocked cradles, burped babies, and groomed the horses she loved to ride. Gently holding her hand, he turned to the nurse. “She would ride like the wind was chasing her.” Looking back to Ann his voice broke; choking back tears “Ann, Ann I saw Jessie…Jessie is calling.” Ben turned “Jessie was our daughter. She died having a baby that was too big. When she died it was a pitch-black night. Cold, so cold, the baby died too, a little boy, named him Abe, Jr. after Jessie’s husband. I took Ann outside so she could cry to God above and there in this dark sky we saw two falling stars…together…just falling. We knew it had to be Jessie and Abe…two angels to light up the night.” Ben turned back as a deep sigh escaped from Ann’s lips. A soft smile remained as she joined Jessie and Abe.

  • Based on this case study how would the nurse actualize Parse’s theory of Human Becoming?
  • What are characteristics of a human becoming nurse? What are strengths and weaknesses to this theory of nursing?
  • What challenges exist for healthcare institutions to switch to this nursing approach?




Concept and Theories of Nursing




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Concept and Theories of Nursing

The Parse’s Theory of Human Becoming

Becoming is centralized human-living-health. It is optional for bio-medical and totality approaches of nursing. The human becoming theory was developed by Rosemarie Parse to guide nurses to emphasize the quality of life as stated and lived by the contributor (Bankers & Kabigting, 2023). This theory rates a participant’s quality of life based on their perspectives and goals, and it is based on three themes of meaning, rhythmicity, and co-transcendence, where an individual’s reality is indicated meaning by lived experience. This essay aims to discuss how would the nurse actualize Parse’s theory of Human Becoming, look at the characteristics of a human becoming theory, the strengths and weaknesses of the human becoming theory, and finally, look at the challenges that exist for healthcare institutions to switch to the nursing approach.

Actualizing Parse’s Theory of Human Becoming

Parse’s theory of human becoming theory assumptions specify an individual as an open being coexisting simultaneously with the universe. Individuals live in a co-creating pattern of involvement with others and multidimensional duchies of the universe at once (Altamirano & Kowalska, 2021). Nurses should know that people choose ways of becoming to give meaning to circumstances and apply the knowledge to Ben’s case. They should contemplate Ben and Ann in a reciprocated process with the universe and distinct ways of becoming to provide meaning to the loss of Jessie. Parse describes an individual’s perspective experience in the universe. This makes Ben connects his daughter Jessie to a shooting star, an experience comforting him and his wife. The nurse remaining a docile participant in Ben’s dialogical process, actualized the theory as she gave them a chance to live and experience a moment without interruption and kept them company, and she realized that something notable happened to the couple. Parse reveals that people develop a personal thrust to an event by picking options from various duchies of the universe (Bunkers 2021). The nurse allows Ben to develop personal importance by using the universe of the events in his life without interruption. Ben notices a shooting star and fastens meaning to it, concluding that the shooting star is his late daughter losing life while giving birth. He co-creates the human-universe process rhythmically.

The Characteristics of Human Becoming Theory

Parse’s human becoming theory has three notable human characteristics: meaning, rhythmicity, and co-transcendence. Human beings can choose personal meaning to connect to issues in the inter-subjective process of reality (Parse, 2018). Human provides meaning through the experience they live in. Rhythmicity enunciates co-creating in various instances by shared practice with the universe, where co-transcendence edicts humans to invent new ways from the universe to put up with what was and imagine what will be. According to Parse (2018), the theory gives a conservative approach to dealing with various stages of nursing. The human becoming nurse should be empathetic and compassionate to the patient and family (Percy & Richardson, 2018). This enables the nurses to offer meaningful support and compassion without becoming brutal and cynical. Nurses must have excellent interpersonal skills to deal with stress and maintain cheerful communication with team members, patients, and families. Quality of good problem-solving skills enables a nurse to make quick decisions in addressing situations. Quick thinking enables nurses to attain responsiveness desired for the demanding where decisions count in life and death matters.

The Strengths and Weaknesses of the Human Becoming Theory

The human becoming theory categorizes the quality of life in nursing care through the person’s perspective. The theory’s strength lies in emphasizing facts presented as fundamental for providing holistic nursing. This theory replaces the mechanic amenities of healthcare with client-oriented care to upgrade the quality of life (Parse, 2018). It also exhibits the need for active input for nursing professionals towards enhancing the open nature of human beings to sustain responsibility freely. The argument of the human becoming theory involves a framework for guiding administration, education, and providing holistic care. It also provides a detailed guide supplementing the inquiries of other theories involving grief and hope. The assumption of the human becoming theory develops closed-circle research results being unquantifiable. The human becoming theory neglects the aspects of patients’ unique experiences that vary with the medical condition. Patient-centered salutes impel expertise and capability to grain social bonds hence inapplicable to initiate nurses.

Challenges that Exist for Healthcare Institutions to Switch to the Nursing Approach

There are numerous challenges raised through transforming the purse theory into practice. These challenges are not unique to a particular health system but develop from situations in the status quo. The challenges are related to sustaining the commitment to learn and to practice new values suggested by the theory to create an atmosphere where individual or family intense experiences where can be opened and shared gently and promoting the allocation of resources to the human becoming a project in light of other suggestions (Parse, 2018). Nurses find it challenging to be fundamental to the dialogical process during engagement with participants, and they are supposed to dwell on the dialogues by adhering to participants meaning, whereas some nurses may lack the ability to consider the conversation to get meaning from the participants carefully. It requires deep immersion in the conversation and context to acquire the participant’s meaning. Educating and offering training is essential to demonstrate to put the theory into


In conclusion, Parse’s human becoming theory aims to upgrade the participants’ quality of care and the nursing practice. The nurse’s role throughout the process is to illuminate meaning, synchronizing rhythms, and deploy transcendence. The administration must support the nurses by assigning adequate time and resources for the theory to work. Checking for progress and enhancing improvement, experts in the theory are required to conduct regular consultations with practicing nurses.













Altamirano, P., & Kowalska, E. (2021). Let’s talk about well-being: The power of creating well-being narratives as a tool for driving sustainable transformation.

Bunkers, S. S., & Kabigting, E. N. R. (2023). The Uniqueness of the Human Becoming Paradigm. Nursing Science Quarterly36(2), 110-115.

Bunkers, S. S., Bournes, D. A., & Mitchell, G. J. (2021). Rosemarie Rizzo Parse: Human becoming. Nursing Theorists and Their Work E-Book, 370.

Parse, R. R. (2018). The human becoming concept inventing model: A reprise and more. Nursing Science Quarterly31(2), 157-159.

Percy, M., & Richardson, C. (2018). Introducing nursing practice to student nurses: How can we promote care compassion and empathy. Nurse education in practice29, 200-205.

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