Multidimensional Care

The principles of care for clients with oncological disorders.


Anna is a 45-year-old female that presented to her physician’s office for her annual check-up. Anna has a history of diabetes, obesity, and noncompliance with diet and medications to control her diabetes. She is a diesel mechanic, a single mother of three teenagers, and smokes regularly. During the history review, Anna shares with you that she has not been feeling like herself for the past six months, she has been unusually tired and a cough that just won’t go away. In fact, for the last few weeks, she’s had a cough so bad that she coughed up rust-colored sputum. She stated, “I am very busy with my children; I haven’t had time to get it checked out. When I had bronchitis before, the doc just gave me some antibiotics and they didn’t help.” Anna has a positive family history of bladder cancer; both her mother and grandmother were also smokers who have been treated for breast cancer. Anna has never had a mammogram. She has recently been experiencing lack of appetite. During the examination, the practitioner notes she’s had a 15 pound weight loss since she was last seen and swollen lymph nodes in the neck. Based on the physical findings Anna will undergo a diagnostic CT scan of the chest.


In a 2-page paper, describe the care that Anna would require and address the questions below.

1. What risk factors does Anna have that could predispose her to the development of cancer?

2. What signs and symptoms could indicate that Anna has developed cancer?

3. Based on Anna’s risk factors and presenting problems, identify three multidimensional care strategies that you would use to provide quality care to Anna. Provide rationale to explain why you chose these strategies.




Multidimensional Care




Student’s Name






Multidimensional Care

The Principles of Care for Clients with Oncological Disorders

“Cancer is just a chapter in our lives and not the whole story.” (Allie Moreno). Cancer is a common health problem in the United States and Canada, with over 1.8 million people diagnosed yearly (Guan et al., 2019), and cancer is a life-threatening disease that can lead to death without interventions. It presents differently in different patients, and tumours vary within a given patient based on the differences in the clonality of the cancer cells themselves and the surrounding microenvironment (Hegde & Chen, 2020). This essay focuses on a case study of a 45-year-old female who presents to her physician’s office for her annual check-up. From the case study, the focus will be on the risk factors that Anna could have led her to the development of cancer, signs and symptoms indicating Anna has developed cancer, and finally, look at multidimensional care strategies to provide quality care to Anna.

Anna’s Risk Factors Leading to the Development of Cancer

From the case scenario, it is clear that Anna has experienced some cancer-related symptoms. Anna is exposed to various factors that persuade her to develop cancer cells. It is understood that most cancer cases are associated with age, and Anna states that she is 45, as advancing age is the most scathing risk factor for cancer (Gao et al., 2021). During adulthood, immunity decreases, and external exposures to carcinogens accumulate. Anna could also inherit cancer from her mother and grandmother, as the case study indicates that they are undergoing breast cancer treatment. According to Johnson et al. (2018), adults with a genetic predisposition are at high risk of developing cancer, Anna has been scuffling with being overweight, and individuals who are obese are at risk of various types of cancers, including breast and colon cancer. Anna being an addict of tobacco, she is at risk of developing of cancer. According to Altekruse et al. (2018), about 30% of cancer diagnosed in North America is related to tobacco use, Tobacco is the most preventable source of carcinogenesis, as it contains most carcinogens and co-carcinogens, and individuals need to be aware of such risk factors that can lead them to the development of cancer, where some of them are avoidable.

Signs and Symptoms Indicating Anna’s Development of Cancer

The signs and symptoms of cancer development in an individual can be of a wide range. Some of the signs and symptoms that Anna has been experiencing, and they are associated with cancer, may include the presence of a palpable lump in Anna’s right breast. The lump in the right breast could result from the growth of a tumor mass which eventually would lead to the development of breast cancer (Clark & Bishop, 2022). A second symptom indicating the risk of Anna developing cancer is that she is experiencing nipple pain which could be caused by the tumor obstructing the areola. Finally, Anna is experiencing tenderness, where inflammation caused by the tumor can cause tenderness and warmth in a person. In addition, she is experiencing fatigue, as she said she has been feeling like herself for the past six months and has been unusually tired. Understanding such signs and symptoms that can be an indication of developing cancer in our bodies is essential as early treatment can be conducted and eventually overcome the disease.

Multidimensional Care Strategies for Anna

Cancer management grail to cure and control the disease while minimizing the side effects of therapy. Cancer therapy includes surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy which includes biological response modifiers and molecularly targeted therapy, photodynamic therapy and hormonal therapy (Nandini et al., 2020). Such therapy may be helpful depending on the specific type of cancer. From the case study, Anna is already in the early stages of breast cancer diagnosis, and the following practices can be recommendable in providing high-quality care. Firstly, it would be essential to provide reliable information and clarify diagnostic measures and treatment alternatives to minimize uncertainty about her condition as she is already stressed, and she has a history of non-compliance with prescriptions given to her treatment, providing reliable information and decreasing uncertainty may help to promote her compliance and reduce the delay.  It would also be vital to promote patients’ physical and psychological well-being by adopting care procedures that prevent cancer development (Ariad et al., 2019). In Anna’s case, this would enable her to prepare for the possible results, reduce worries, and encourage her to participate in treatment actively. Lastly, it would be crucial to establish care coordination and promote social support for Anna’s case, her burden in caring for her three children could hurt her possible treatment, and as a result, encouraging social support and seeking assistance programs for comprehensive care can benefit her-centred care. such strategies are essential as they can help an individual manage and overcome complications brought by the disease.


Cancer is a life-threatening disease that can lead to death without interventions and early diagnosis of the disease is recommendable as it can help to minimize the complications of the disease, and even to some extent, the disease can be overcome. Based on Anna’s symptoms and risk factors, she is at risk of suffering from breast cancer, where the condition can be managed using multidimensional care. It would be essential for Anna to adhere to her healthcare provider’s recommendations in order to enhance the effective management of her condition.



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Clark, A., & Bishop, J. (2022). Unknown Case: Painful and Palpable Lumps in Both Breasts. Journal of Breast Imaging4(6), 661-663.

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Hegde, P. S., & Chen, D. S. (2020). Top 10 challenges in cancer immunotherapy. Immunity52(1), 17-35.

Johnson, R. H., Anders, C. K., Litton, J. K., Ruddy, K. J., & Bleyer, A. (2018). Breast cancer in adolescents and young adults. Pediatric blood & cancer65(12), e27397.

Nandini, D. B., Rao, R. S., Hosmani, J., Khan, S., Patil, S., & Awan, K. H. (2020). Novel therapies in the management of oral cancer: An update. Disease-a-Month66(12), 101036.

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