Essentials of Maternity, Newborn, and Women’s Health Nursing

Maternal Adaptation during Pregnancy

1. Jessica and Mike are new clients at your obstetrics office. You are asking them about the reason for their visit. Jessica says she thinks she is pregnant because she missed a period. Mike tells you Jessica is always nauseated in the morning and eats all the time the rest of the day. They have not been using birth control and have wanted to have children since they got married last summer. Jessica says her clothes are feeling tighter and her breasts seem tender. Mike says he has noticed that Jessica has been frequently getting up to go to the bathroom at night. (Learning Objectives 2 and 4)

  1. What subjective symptoms have led Jessica and Mike to presume she is pregnant? What other conditions could be the cause of Jessica’s symptoms? How can a pregnancy be confirmed as probable? Diagnosed as positive?
  2. Discuss the nutritional needs of Jessica and her baby.




Essentials of Maternity, Newborn, and Women’s Health Nursing




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Essentials of Maternity, Newborn, and Women’s Health Nursing

Maternal Adaptation during Pregnancy

Maternity, newborn, and women’s health nursing is a unique nursing field focusing on women’s care all over their reproduction time. This nursing field demands a thorough comprehension of the specific physical, emotional, and social requirements for women and infants. Nurses working in the area must provide sympathetic care to women during labor and delivery, handle any complications during pregnancy and childbirth, and the nurse should provide education and support to new mothers (Erfina et al., 2019). Nurses in this area play a significant role as they promote the health of women by averting illness through education and preventive care. This essay aims to explore a case study on Jessica and Mike, who are new clients in an obstetrics office and suspect that Jessica might be pregnant. From the case study, the essay will explore the subjective symptoms that have led Jessica and Mike to presume she is pregnant, other conditions that could cause Jessica’s symptoms, how to confirm pregnancy as probable, and the nutritional needs of Jessica and her baby.

Subjective Symptoms Leading Jessica and Mike to Presume she is Pregnant

Mike and Jessica have perceived various subjective symptoms leading them to suppose that Jessica is pregnant. In the case study, Jessica explained that she has been missing her period, which clearly indicates pregnancy. Jessica also explained that she is experiencing morning sickness, a common early symptom of pregnancy usually characterized by nausea and vomiting in the morning (Mares et al., 2022), and also Mike the husband to Jessica explains that her wife has an increased appetite and frequent urination at night, which occurs during pregnancy due to changes in hormones in the body, and they could indicate that Jessica is pregnant. Jessica is also experiencing early weight gain, as she explained that her clothes are getting tighter, indicating pregnancy symptoms (Hutcheon & Bodnar, 2018). The husband also highlighted that his wife’s breasts are tender, indicating signs of early pregnancy as the body prepares for breastfeeding. These personal signs explained by Mike and Jessica provide a firm conclusion that Jessica might be pregnant.

Other Conditions that Could be the Cause of Jessica’s Symptoms

Similar symptoms as various medical conditions can cause those explained by Jessica in the case study. This may include some medication that she may be taking, stress, hormonal imbalance, thyroid disorders, and weight alteration may be the cause of why Jessica missed her periods, her breast being tender, frequent urination at night, and nausea (Sadeghi et al., 2022). The presence of infection or inflammation in the reproductive system or the urinary tract can lead to such symptoms. The case study indicated the history of Jessica and Mike not using birth control as they needed conceiving, she is likely pregnant. A healthcare provider needs to conduct a pregnancy test and perform a thorough medical evaluation to prove any other potential cause ensuring the health of the mother and the baby. Healthcare providers need to comprehend such conditions having similar symptoms to that of pregnancy for their patient satisfaction.

Confirming Pregnancy as Probable

Confirming if pregnancy is possible various ways can be taken, which include home pregnancy test, blood test, and urine test. Home pregnancy tests discern the existence of human chorionic gonadotropin in the urine extracted by the placenta after the implantation of a fertilized in the womb (Lee et al., 2022). Home pregnancy is error-free and can be performed as early as a few days after missing periods. The most accurate method to confirm pregnancy is a blood test because it detects low levels of human chorionic hormone and can be performed seven to ten days after conception (Ngo et al., 2018). Clinical urine tests are almost the same as home pregnancy tests, but they are more sensitive to detecting pregnancy earlier. In cases of complications or concerns about the pregnancy, healthcare providers are supposed to perform a pelvic exam and ultrasound when confirming pregnancy.

The Nutritional Needs of Jessica and Her Baby

Jessica being pregnant, must maintain a balanced nutritious diet to improve the growth and development of her unborn baby. Jessica should take various foods that provide her with crucial nutrients such as calcium, iron, protein, and folic. Calcium is needed to develop the baby’s bones and teeth, while folic acid is vital during the early stages of pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects in the baby (Roche et al., 2021). Jessica should also take adequate iron as it is crucial to support blood production during pregnancy and proteins for the growth of tissues for the baby. Plenty of fruits, vegetables, and healthy fats would also be recommended for Jessica to ensure she gets the appropriate minerals and vitamins, ensuring that she is hydrated and takes enough water daily. It would also be recommendable for Jessica to have a regular parental check-up with a healthcare provider to monitor her nutritional status, ensuring that Jessica and her baby receive the appropriate nutrients.


Maternity, newborn, and women’s health nursing is an important field in healthcare focusing on providing care to women during their reproductive period. As illustrated in the case study of Mike and Jessica, subjective symptoms like missing periods, morning sickness, tenderness of the breast, and frequent urination can indicate signs of pregnancy. It is also essential to examine other conditions that may indicate similar symptoms and various methods can be used to confirm pregnancy, including home pregnancy tests, blood tests, and clinical urine tests. Jessica should take a balanced diet to ensure proper growth and development of the unborn child and maintain a healthy pregnancy. Healthcare providers are responsible for educating and monitoring women on their nutritional requirements ensuring they receive appropriate care during pregnancy.

















Erfina, E., Widyawati, W., McKenna, L., Reisenhofer, S., & Ismail, D. (2019). Exploring Indonesian adolescent women’s healthcare needs as they transition to motherhood: A qualitative study. Women and Birth32(6), e544-e551.

Hutcheon, J. A., & Bodnar, L. M. (2018). Good practices for observational studies of maternal weight and weight gain in pregnancy. Pediatric and perinatal epidemiology32(2), 152.

Lee, D., Lee, Y. G., Won, J., Hong, S. H., Kim, J. H., & Kang, Y. J. (2022). Effects of intrauterine human chorionic gonadotropin administration on endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation. Life Sciences311, 121154.

Mares, R., Morrow, A., Shumway, H., Zapata, I., Forstein, D., & Brooks, B. (2022). Assessment of management approaches for hyperemesis gravidarum and nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a retrospective questionnaire analysis. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth22(1), 1-8.

Ngo, T. T., Moufarrej, M. N., Rasmussen, M. L. H., Camunas-Soler, J., Pan, W., Okamoto, J., … & Quake, S. R. (2018). Noninvasive blood tests for fetal development predict gestational age and preterm delivery. Science360(6393), 1133-1136.

Roche, M. L., Samson, K. L., Green, T. J., Karakochuk, C. D., & Martinez, H. (2021). Perspective: Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation (WIFAS): a critical review and rationale for inclusion in the Essential Medicines List to accelerate anemia and neural tube defects reduction. Advances in Nutrition12(2), 334-342.

Sadeghi, H. M., Adeli, I., Calina, D., Docea, A. O., Mousavi, T., Daniali, M., … & Abdollahi, M. (2022). Polycystic ovary syndrome: a comprehensive review of pathogenesis, management, and drug repurposing. International journal of molecular sciences23(2), 583.

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