Genetic Alterations And Cancer

The diagnosis and staging of cancer.

Write a paper (1,250-1,750 words) describing the approach to the care of genetic alterations and cancer. In addition, include the following in your paper:

1. Describe the diagnosis and staging of cancer.

2. Describe at least three complications of cancer, the side effects of treatment, and methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.

3. Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide.

This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Only Word documents can be submitted to Turnitin.

My suggestion for the assignment is to address cancer in general rather than focus on a specific type of cancer. Make sure you are carefully reading the assignment details as well as the assignment grading rubric as these will tell you exactly what you will be graded on.

(Hint: It is important to make the distinction between detection of possible cancer and actual diagnosis).


Top of Form

1 Unsatisfactory 0-72% 0.00% 2 Less Than Satisfactory 72-75% 75.00% 3 Satisfactory 76-79% 79.00% 4 Good 80-89% 89.00% 5 Excellent 90-100% 100.00%
80.0 %Content  
30.0 %Explanation of the Diagnosis and Staging of Cancers is Provided. An explanation of the diagnosis and staging of cancers is not provided. An explanation of the diagnosis and staging of cancers is provided but is missing relevant information. An explanation of the diagnosis and staging of cancers is provided that meets the assignment criteria. An explanation of the diagnosis and staging of cancers is provided that is offered in a detailed manner. An explanation of the diagnosis and staging of cancers is provided that is offered in a detailed manner, while demonstrating higher level or critical thinking.
20.0 %At Least Three Complications of Cancer are Identified With Comprehensive Discussion of Available Treatments. Less than three complications of cancer are identified. At least three complications of cancer are identified but lacking a comprehensive discussion of available treatments. At least three complications of cancer are identified with a comprehensive discussion of available treatments. More than three complications of cancer are identified with a comprehensive discussion of available treatments. More than three complications of cancer are identified with a comprehensive discussion of available treatments, while demonstrating higher level or critical thinking.
30.0 %Provides Recommendations to Address Physiological and Psychological Side Effects of Care. Recommendations to address physiological and psychological side effects of care are lacking. Recommendations to address physiological and psychological side effects of care are missing relevant information. Recommendations to address physiological and psychological side effects of care meet the assignment criteria. Recommendations to address physiological and psychological side effects of care are offered in a detailed manner. Recommendations to address physiological and psychological side effects of care are offered in a detailed manner, while demonstrating higher level or critical thinking.
15.0 %Organization and Effectiveness  
5.0 %Thesis Development and Purpose Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim. Thesis and/or main claim are insufficiently developed and/or vague; purpose is not clear. Thesis and/or main claim are apparent and appropriate to purpose. Thesis and/or main claim are clear and forecast the development of the paper. It is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose. Thesis and/or main claim are comprehensive; contained within the thesis is the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.
5.0 %Paragraph Development and Transitions Paragraphs and transitions consistently lack unity and coherence. No apparent connections between paragraphs are established. Transitions are inappropriate to purpose and scope. Organization is disjointed. Some paragraphs and transitions may lack logical progression of ideas, unity, coherence, and/or cohesiveness. Some degree of organization is evident. Paragraphs are generally competent, but ideas may show some inconsistency in organization and/or in their relationships to each other. A logical progression of ideas between paragraphs is apparent. Paragraphs exhibit a unity, coherence, and cohesiveness. Topic sentences and concluding remarks are appropriate to purpose. There is a sophisticated construction of paragraphs and transitions. Ideas progress and relate to each other. Paragraph and transition construction guide the reader. Paragraph structure is seamless.





Genetic Alterations and Cancer




Student’s Name







Genetic Alterations and Cancer

The Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer

Unfastening the confidence concealed within our DNA, genetic alterations unfold as the pivotal perplex pieces that untangle the enigma of cancer, offering hope for ingenious therapies and a more profound comprehension of this persistent disorder. Genetic alteration plays a critical role in the evolution and continuation of cancer. Cancer is a multiplex disorder distinguished by uncontrolled growth and discord of abnormal cells, and such cells frequently obtain genetic mutations, contributing to their virulent behavior (Nenclares & Harrington, 2020). Genetic alteration arises in numerous ways, involving changes in the DNA chain, chromosomal reorganization, gene dilatation, and epigenetic modifications. Such alterations can alter the regular operation of genes in cell development regulation, DNA repair, and cell death pathways. As an outcome, cancer cells can elude normal cellular controls and arise traits that enhance their survival, proliferation, and capability to conquer surrounding tissues. Comprehending the particular genetic alterations connected with distinct types of cancer is vital for developing aimed therapies, selectively altering the cancer cells’ abnormal genetic pathways while reducing damage to healthy cells. Development in genomic technologies has offered valuable insights into the genetic landscape of cancer, allowing the identification of particular genetic alterations that control tumorigenesis. By illuminating such alterations and their practical upshot, researchers and clinicians can develop significant steps in diagnosis, treating, and eventually preventing cancer. This paper will explore the diagnosis and staging of cancer, complications of cancer and the side effects of treatment, and ways to lessen physical and psychological effects.

The Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer

The diagnosis and staging of cancer entail a procession of strides to discover the presence, type, and extent of the disorder. At first, a medical professional may conjecture cancer based on symptoms, medical history, or the outcomes of a routine screening test. Numerous diagnostic processes are engaged to substantiate cancer diagnosis, including imaging tests like X-rays, computed tomography scans, magnetic vibrancy imaging, and positron emission tomography scans (Hussain et al., 2022). In addition, tissue specimens are collected through biopsies, with a small piece of the impacted area extracted and assessed under a microscope. Once cancer is substantiated, staging is ushered to determine the level of the disorder and control treatment decisions. Staging examines the tumor’s size, encroaching, and whether it has moved to nearby lymph nodes, including other organs. The most frequently used staging system is the TNM system, evaluating the tumor, lymph node participation, and metastasis (Macedo et al., 2021). Numerical and alphabetical values are allocated to each category, designating the extremity and advancement of cancer. Staging enables one to determine the nessesally treatment strategy and offers predictive information concerning the patient’s outlook. It enables healthcare professionals to establish a baseline for observing the disorder’s advancement and evaluating the treatment’s efficacy over time. The diagnosis and staging procedures are essential in cancer management, delegating personalized care plans and easing communication between healthcare providers, ensuring maximum patient care.

Cancer Complications

Cancer, a multiplex and miscellaneous disorder, can develop into numerous complications that extremely impact an individual’s health and quality of life. Some significant complications frequently connected with cancer are metastasis, cachexia, and immune suppression (Gaafer & Zimmers, 2021). Metastasis develops when cancer cells move from the main tumor to other body parts by the bloodstream or lymphatic system. This procedure can result in the formation of secondary tumors that makes the disorder more complicated to treat and minimize the chances of victorious intervention. Cachexia, a state distinguished by severe weight loss and muscle wasting, often develops in cancer patients. It is mainly brought by the body’s system response to the tumor and can result in weakness, fatigue, and a complicated immune system. Talking about immune function, cancer can also lead to immune suppression and the body’s logical defense mechanisms becomes damaged (Adorisio et al., 2021). This state makes individuals more permitted to infections, poor wound healing and hinders the effectualness of cancer treatment that depends on a strong immune response. Such complications indicate the necessity of timely detection, effectual treatment, and understanding supportive care in cancer management.

The Side Effects of Cancer Treatment

Cancer treatment can frequently result in numerous side effects, depending on the type and stage of cancer and the particular treatment being employed, and frequent side effects of cancer treatment may include fatigue, nausea, hair loss, and puking, including appetite changes. Chemotherapy, a frequently used cancer treatment, can bring gastrointestinal problems like diarrhea and constipation, including weakening the immune system, leading to a maximized risk of infections (Reyna-Figueroa et al., 2019). Radiation therapy may lead to skin irritation and burns in the treated areas. Surgical processes may result in pain, bumping, and a temporally lessen in mobility. In addition, some treatments can impact fertility, leading to temporary and permanent infertility. It is essential to note that not all individuals will encounter the same side effects, where advances in medical care and concerned therapies aim to reduce their effects on patients’ quality of life. Effectual communication with healthcare providers can assist in managing and relieving such side effects as much as possible.

Ways of Lessening Physical and Physical Effects

To reduce physical and psychological effects, numerous methods can be engaged. Physical effects require the adoption of a healthy lifestyle. Frequent exercise assists in minimizing stress, boosting mood, and enhancing overall well-being (Browall et al., 2018), where Proper nutrition and a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can offer vital nutrients for the body and improve physical health, and adequate sleep is also crucial for recovery and rejuvenation. In addition, practicing relaxation methods like deep breathing exercises, medication, and yoga can assist in minimizing tension and reducing physical symptoms. In addressing psychological impacts, it is vital to range self-care and employ activities that improve emotional well-being (Søvold et al., 2021). Social support from friends, family, and support groups can offer comfort and comprehension. Speaking to a therapist or counselor can provide valuable guidance and subsisting strategies for managing psychological distress. Charming in hobbies, creative outlets, or mindfulness practice can assist in diverting attention from pessimistic thoughts and encourage a sense of fulfillment and relaxation. Developing realistic goals, coping time effectually, and maintaining an emphatic mindset are also essential in minimizing psychological stress. Eventually, a comprehensive approach combining physical and psychological strategies can crucially contribute to minimizing the overall impacts on both fronts.


Genetic alteration plays a critical role in cancer blossoming, affecting cell growth, dissection, and repair mechanisms. The diagnosis and staging of the disorder are crucial in deciding the extent and development of the disorder, allowing the necessary treatment planning. Numerous compilations can develop from cancer and physical and psychological effects. Such complications can span from pain, fatigue, and immune system suppression to emotional distress, disquiet, and depression. The side effects of cancer treatment, like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery, can also lead to burdens encountered by patients. Development in medical care and sensitive therapies have offered ways to minimize such side effects and selected therapies, strategies to manage pain, psychosocial support, and consolidative therapies. The extensive approach to cancer aims to not only treat the disorder but also address patients’ physical, emotional, and psychological well-being, enhancing their overall quality of life.















Adorisio, S., Cannarile, L., Delfino, D. V., & Ayroldi, E. (2021). Glucocorticoid and PD-1 Cross-Talk: Does the Immune System Become Confused? Cells10(9), 2333.

Browall, M., Mijwel, S., Rundqvist, H., & Wengström, Y. (2018). Physical activity during and after adjuvant treatment for breast cancer: an integrative review of women’s experiences. Integrative cancer therapies17(1), 16-30.

Felsenstein, M., Hruban, R. H., & Wood, L. D. (2018). New developments in the molecular mechanisms of pancreatic tumorigenesis. Advances in anatomic pathology25(2), 131.

Gaafer, O. U., & Zimmers, T. A. (2021). Nutrition challenges of cancer cachexia. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition45(S2), S16-S25.

Hussain, S., Mubeen, I., Ullah, N., Shah, S. S. U. D., Khan, B. A., Zahoor, M., … & Sultan, M. A. (2022). Modern Diagnostic Imaging Technique Applications and Risk Factors in the Medical Field: A Review. BioMed Research International2022.

Macedo, F., Sequeira, H., Ladeira, K., Bonito, N., Viana, C., & Martins, S. (2021). Metastatic lymph node ratio as a better prognostic tool than the TNM system in colorectal cancer. Future Oncology17(12), 1519-1532.

Nenclares, P., & Harrington, K. J. (2020). The biology of cancer. Medicine48(2), 67-72.

Reyna-Figueroa, J., Barrón-Calvillo, E., García-Parra, C., Galindo-Delgado, P., Contreras-Ochoa, C., Lagunas-Martínez, A., … & Limón-Rojas, A. E. (2019). Probiotic supplementation decreases chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal side effects in patients with acute leukemia. Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology41(6), 468-472.

Søvold, L. E., Naslund, J. A., Kousoulis, A. A., Saxena, S., Qoronfleh, M. W., Grobler, C., & Münter, L. (2021). Prioritizing the mental health and well-being of healthcare workers: an urgent global public health priority. Frontiers in public health9, 679397.

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